utorak, 5. rujna 2017.

Take control of your energy consumption



Take control of your energy consumption

The Powerwall is a home battery system that turns your home’s solar panels into an all day resource – increasing self-consumption of solar – while also offering backup in the event of an outage. The Powerwall enables more of your home’s electricity use to come from solar, which enhances solar functionality, and reduces energy costs.
When solar panels produce more power than a home needs, the excess solar is sent back to the grid. The Powerwall enables a homeowner instead to capture and store excess solar power produced during the day for use at night. The result is greater self-consumption of your solar generation and reduced energy costs.

Tesla is far from the only company looking to profit off of rechargeable batteries for the home.

At-home batteries are a necessary purchase for anyone looking to convert their home to solar power. The batteries store the electricity generated by solar panels, which can then be used at night or during peak grid times to save money on your electricity bill.

But the batteries can also be used to charge electric vehicles, which is why many automakers are now selling their own units.

Scroll down to see the 10 at-home batteries looking to take on Tesla's Powerwall 2:

First, some information on Tesla's Powerwall 2 — a 264-pound, lithium-ion battery that you can mount on your wall. Panasonic makes the cells for the battery, while Tesla builds the battery module and pack.

A single Powerwall unit stores 14 kWh of energy, but you can link up to 10 batteries side-by-side to increase storage. A single unit, including installation, can cost as much as $11,450.

POWERWALL 2 SPECIFICATIONS

Technology
Wall mounted, rechargeable lithium ion battery with liquid thermal control.

Model 2
13.2 kWh – For daily cycle applications

Warranty
10 years

Supported Applications
Solar self-consumption, Time of use load shifting, BackUp

Power
7kW peak / 5kW continuous

Scalable
Up to 9 Powerwalls

Dimensions
1150mm x 755mm x 155mm

Installation
Floor or wall mounted
Indoor or outdoor

Operating Temperature
-20°C to 50°C

Use more of your solar
Instead of sending excess solar energy into the grid, Powerwall stores it for use any time.

Weight
110kg

Always connected
Monitor your solar energy use in real-time and receive alerts when Powerwall is preparing for cloudy or severe weather.

All in one inverter
Powerwall uses an internal inverter to convert DC energy to the AC energy required for your home, lowering cost and complexity.

Depth of Discharge
100%

Tesla has offered battery and solar installations as one process ever since it acquired SolarCity last November. Tesla is now selling solar roof shingles that are designed to look like an actual roof to compete with rival solar installers, like Sunrun and Vivint, on an aesthetic level.

1. LG Chem's RESU battery is probably Tesla's closest competitor in the space. Last October, LG Chem partnered with solar company Sunrun to bring its battery option to the US.

The RESU is now available to Sunrun customers and its products distribution arm — a similar strategy to making the Powerwall available to SolarCity customers. It stores up to 9.8 kWh of energy and starts at around $4,000 for lower-voltage options.

2. Mercedes also has the potential to rival Tesla's home battery business. The company announced Thursday it will partner with Vivint to sell its home battery in California.

The German automaker is following Tesla and LG Chem by partnering with a solar company to combine the battery and solar installation processes. Mercedes' battery stores 2.5 kWh of energy, but units can be combined to store 20 kWh. The biggest storage option costs $13,000, installation included.

3. Nissan offers a rechargeable battery option, called XStorage, which holds 4.2 kWh of energy storage. The automaker began selling the XStorage in May in the United Kingdom, where Tesla and Mercedes also sell their battery options.

Nissan's xStorage battery costs $4,500, which includes the price of installation. Nissan is looking to set itself apart as a sustainable battery provider by using old battery cells in the units.

4. BMW plans to sell two battery options that can store a whopping 22 kWh and 33 kWh worth of energy, but they have yet to launch. Like Nissan, BMW will take a sustainable approach by reusing batteries from its BMW i3 series.

5. Sonnen, a German company, sells several at-home battery options with up to 16 kWh of storage. The eco compact version pictured here holds 4 kWh of energy and costs $5,950. It comes with the inverter included.

The company derives two-thirds of its revenue from its German operations, but is looking to expand abroad. Sonnen opened a factory in Atlanta in April to begin production for the US market. It also has plans to expand to Australia, the United Kingdom, and Italy.

6. SimpliPhi Power is an at-home battery maker that's been around since 2002, but its original name was LibertyPak Company. SimpliPhi offers several battery options, the largest of which stores 3.4 kWh of energy.

SimpliPhi's batteries can be combined to make a battery pack as large as you need. The company recently partnered with solar installer CivicSolar to provide a comprehensive energy system.

7. Sunverge offers battery systems providing anywhere from 7.7 kWh to 19.4 kWh of energy storage. Weighing around 500 pounds, the battery has to be installed by a trained Sunverge specialist.

Sunverge comes with a corresponding app so you can monitor your solar energy storage and see electric grid costs at different times. A Sunverge unit can cost between $8,000 and $20,000, depending on the size you get.

8. Powervault is an at-home battery system that is sold in the UK. All units come with an inverter included, and the most powerful model stores 6 kWh of energy. Prices start at roughly $3,000.

9. Palo Alto-based ElectrIQ sells a battery for US homes that stores 10 kWh of energy. Its retail price is about $16,000 and includes the price of an inverter.

10. Panasonic, which makes the cells for Tesla's home battery, also has its own unit that can store 8 kWh of energy. It's currently available in Australia.

Panasonic's battery weighs about 185 pounds, but the cost of a unit is not made readily available.

subota, 5. kolovoza 2017.

Yarrow / Stolisnik


Stolisnik

-Achillea millefoltum L. 
Obitelj: Asteraceae  

Nadzemni dio biljke stolisnika - Millefolii herba 
Cvijet stolisnika - Millefolii flos 
Eterično ulje stolisnika - Millefolii aetheroleum. 

Naziv ove biljke potječe od imena mitskog junaka Ahila i "mile folium", što znači tisuću listova. 
Stolisnik je rasprostranjen u cijelom svijetu. Raste i u nizinskim i u planinskim područjima. 

Morfološke i fiziološke značajke
Stolisnik je višegodišnja zeljasta biljka. Korijenov sustav sastoji se od pužućeg rizoma s brojnim sitnim žilicama. Stabljike su ravne, najčešće slabo razgranate, visine do 80 cm. 

Listovi su izduženi, dvostruko i trostruko podijeljeni. Režnjevi su šiljasti i gusto zbijeni.



Cvjetovi su složeni i skupljeni u vodoravne cvatove. Obodni cvjetovi su bijele, a vrlo rijetko i ružičaste boje. U sredini cvijeta nalaze se plodni cvjetići. Sjeme je sitno, ovalnog oblika, sive boje. Masa 1000 zrna je 0,10 - 0,15 g. Zrelo sjeme je dobre klijavosti i klija odmah nakon berbe. Nakon dozrijevanja 
sjemena cvjetonosne stabljike se suše. a biljke prezimljavaju u obliku rozete. Stolisnik dobro podnosi niske temperature kao i ljetne vrućine i suše. Cijela biljka je žilava i formira čvrst i gust busen. 

Kemijski sastav i upotreba 
Stolisnik sadrži 0,2 - 1,2 % eteričnog ulja. U ulju tetraploidnog stolisnika ima 30 - 50 %. azulena. nešto cineola. kamfora. sabinena, pinena i drugih tvari. Biljka također sadrži flavonoide, alkaloide (ahilein), tanine, organske kiseline i krom. koji je važan za sintezu inulina. 

Stolisnik je gorka aromatična biljka koja se koristi za poboljšanje probave kao i za stimuliranje lučenja žuči. Koristi se i za izbacivanje žučnih i bubrežnih kamenaca. Može se koristiti i za vanjsku upotrebu u obliku kupki, obloga ili ekstrakata za liječenje kožnih oboljenja, hemeroida itd. Eterično se ulje koristi u kozmetičkoj i farmaceutskoj industriji. 

Uvjeti uzgoja 
Klima - Stolisnik treba uzgajati na sunčanim površinama jer nema velikih potreba za vlagom. 

Tlo - Stolisnik se može uzgajati na svim tipovima obradivih tala, neutralne do slabo kisele reakcije. Najbolje uspijeva na dubokim tlima dobrih fizikalnih i kemijskih značajki, ali treba izbjegavati tla bogata dušikom. 

Uzgoj 
Plodored - Stolisnik se kao višegodišnja kultura ne uzgaja u plodoredu. Najbolje ga je saditi iza kultura koje ostavljaju tlo čisto od korova. Leguminoze nisu dobre pretkulture. 

Obrada tla - Za razliku od mnogih kultura, stolisnik ne zahtijeva duboku obradu tla. Oranje treba obaviti na dubinu od 20 do 25 cm. 

Gnojidba - Za osnovnu se gnojidbu upotrebljavaju mineralna NPK gnojiva s povećanim sadržajem fosfora koji potiče razvoj cvatova. 
Gnojidba se obavlja tijekom predsjetvene pripreme tla. Ovisno o plodnosti tla primjenjuje se 200 - 300 kg/ha gnojiva. Mineralna gnojiva treba primjenjivati tijekom cijelog uzgojnog razdoblja i to krajem godine, nakon vegetacije ili u rano proljeće, prije početka vegetacije. U organskoj se poljoprivredi primjenjuje stajski gnoj i druga dozvoljena gnojiva koja sadrže fosfor i kalij. 

Razmnožavanje - Stolisnik se razmnožava direktnom sjetvom sjemena u polje ili preko presadnica. Direktna sjetva sjemena obavlja se sijačicama u redove na razmaku od 50 do 60 cm. Sjeme se sije u brazde, bez naknadnog pokrivanja. Nakon sjetve površinu treba povaljati glatkim valjkom. Sjetva se obavlja krajem kolovoza ili početkom rujna. Sjeme klija za 10 - 15 dana. pa su do zime biljke dovoljno razvijene da mogu prezimiti. Sjetva se može obavili i u proljeće, tijekom ožujka ili najkasnije do polovice travnja. Za sjetvu na razmaku između redova od 50 - 60 cm potrebno je 300 g sjemena uz uvjet da se sije 50 zrna po m². 

Za jesensku je sjetvu potrebno 1 - 2 kg/ha sjemena. Sjeme treba miješali s nekim inertnim materijalom - nosačem (pijesak ili sl.). 
Čistoća sjemena za sjetvu treba biti 90 %, a klijavost najmanje 80 %. Ako se stolisnik razmnožava preko presadnica, sjetva sjemena u hladne lijehe obavlja se u drugoj polovici lipnja. U tom su slučaju biljke spremne za presađivanje krajem listopada. Presadnice se sade na dobro poravnatu i usitnjenu površinu u brazde duboke 5 - 8 cm na razmaku između redova od 50 do 60 cm. Nakon sadnje presadnice se prekriju zemljom i dobro pritisnu. Za površinu od 1 ha potrebno je 66 600- 80 000 biljaka. 




Njega
Stolisnik nije zahtjevna biljka, ali najveći se prinosi postižu na rastresitim površinama čistim od korova. To je posebno važno za mlade biljke u prvoj godini uzgoja. Nasade na siromašnim tlima treba prihraniti mineralnim dušičnim gnojivom. 
Međuredno okopavanje i kultiviranje obično se obavlja 2 -3 puta. a po potrebi i više. 
Prihranjivanje se obavlja u rano proljeće, najčešće tijekom travnja s dušičnim gnojivom (KAN) u količini od 100 do 150 kg/ha. Nakon završetka prve ili na početku sljedeće vegetacije treba primijeniti 100 - 200 kg/ha mineralnog NPK gnojiva. 

Berba
Od stolisnika se koristi cvijet sa stabljikom dužine do 25 cm (herba) ili samo cvijet. Stolisnik se bere u fazi punog cvjetanja. Berba se obavlja strojno, a na manjim površinama ručno. Prva godina uzgoja daje samo jednu berbu i to lijekom lipnja. Višegodišnji nasadi daju dvije berbe, prvu tijekom lipnja, a drugu tijekom kolovoza ili rujna. 

Sušenje
Stolisnik se može sušiti prirodnim putem ili u sušnicama na temperaturi od 40 do 60 °C. Za 1 kg suhih nadzemnih dijelova biljke potrebno je 3,5 - 4,0 kg svježih. 

Prinos
U prvoj godini uzgoja prinos suhih nadzemnih dijelova biljke je 1500 
- 2500 kg/ha. a sljedećih godina i do 6000 kg/ha. Prinos cvijeta u prvoj godini je do 1000 kg/ha, a sljedećih i do 3000 kg/ha. 

Standardi kvalitete za herbu stolisnika (Millefolii hb.) prema Ph. Eur. 5. 
- eterično ulje min. 2 ml/kg (s.t.) 
- strane tvari: 
- dijelovi stabljike promjera većeg od 3 mm max. 4 % 
- ostale strane tvari max. 2 % 
- gubitak sušenjem max. 12,0 % 
- ukupni pepeo max. 10,0 % 
- pepeo netopljiv u HCl max. 2,5 % 


Željko Serdar, Hrvatski Centar Obnovljenih Izvora Energije
(HCOIE)


Yarrow

This herb plant was first used by ancient Greeks over 3,000 years ago for treating external wounds on the skin. The flowers and leaves of yarrow were eaten and also made into a tea-like drink. The fresh leaves were used to stop bleeding wounds, treat gastrointestinal problems, fight fevers, lessen menstrual bleeding and better circulation. The fresh leaves were also chewed on to relieve tooth aches. Scientists have credited yarrow for its benefits relating to almost every organ in the body.

Native Americans used yarrow for wounds, infections and bleeding. Chinese medicine gives it praise for the ability to affect the kidney, spleen, liver and energy channels throughout the body. Animal studies have also shown support for the use of yarrow in cleansing wounds and controlling the bleeding of wounds, cuts and abrasions. Many times yarrow is categorized as a uterine tonic, which supports the circulation in the uterine. Many studies show that it helps the uterine by improving the tone, increasing menstrual flow and reducing spasms in the uterine.




Other benefits of yarrow
Fights bacteria. Yarrow has an antiseptic action. The bitter parts and fatty acids encourage bile flow out of the gallbladder, known as the cholagogue effect. The free-flowing action improves digestion and prevents and gallstones from forming. Decongestant. Yarrow contains a drying effect and seems to improve coughs and sinus infections with sputum formation. Astringent. Very helpful with allergies where nasal secretions and watery eyes are caused by molds, dust, pollen and dander. Yarrow is also known to cause sweating in cases of flu, fevers and colds, helping to cure simple infections. Infusion. Yarrow is used to aid in healing skin conditions, such as eczema. The essential oils are used and rubbed onto the affected area. Anti-inflammatory. The oil found in the yarrow has been used to treat arthritis. Expectorant. Helps to cure colds. Promotes digestion. Helps in the secretion of enzymes and digestive juice and increases appetite; both help in digestion.


Yarrow is highly known and widely used in herbal medicines and supplied either externally or internally. The entire plant is used, both dried and fresh and is best when gathered while in flower. It is recommended to use caution when this herb if used in large or frequent doses taken for a long period of time. This can possibly be harmful and may cause rashes or make the skin sensitive to sun.

The leaves of the yarrow can be used cooked or raw. They have a bitter flavor but are good in mixed salads and best used when they are young. The leaves may also be used as a preservative or flavoring for beer. The flowers and leaves can be made into an aromatic tea and the essential oils found in the flowering heads can be used as flavor for soft drinks. Its basic components are Alpha Pinene, Acetate, Borneol, Beta Pinene, Borneol, Cineole, Camphene, Camphor, Gamma Terpinene, Isoartemisia Ketone, Chamazulene, Limonene, Sabinene and Tricyclene.

Recommended dosage and administration of yarrow for adults

~Yarrow flowers or equal preparations: 3g in one day as tea or infusion ~Extract (1:1, 25 ethanol): 1-4 ml three times in a day ~Dried herb: 2-4 g of infusion or capsules three times in a day ~Tincture (1:5; 40 ethanol): 2-4 three times in a day



Zeljko Serdar, Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources
(CCRES)

četvrtak, 29. lipnja 2017.

Is sea air good for you?



The summer holidays are here, which means there’ll soon be crowds flocking to the coast to spend the day at the beach. The supposed benefits of ‘fresh sea air’ are commonly extolled, but its origins might not be what you think: it’s the chemical compounds produced by algae and seaweed that contribute towards its characteristic smell.
Seaweed is one of the more obvious sources of malodorous compounds. It’s commonly seen washed up on the fringes of the sea, and as it decomposes, it can produce gases that contribute to the ‘sea smell’. The principle gas produced is hydrogen sulfide, which is generated via the bacterial breakdown of organic compounds in the seaweed. Hydrogen sulfide has an odour commonly described as akin to rotting eggs, and is actually a toxic gas in high concentrations.
However, before you start sprinting in terror from seaweed on all future vacations, it’s worth pointing out that, at low concentrations, hydrogen sulfide is harmless. In fact, it’s naturally produced in the body (it’s also a big contributor to the odour of flatulence), and since our bodies are capable of breaking it down, it can be tolerated at low levels pretty much indefinitely.
Seaweed isn’t the only plant that has a hand in the smell of the sea, however. Perhaps the most important contributor is algae. Algae contain a compound called dimethylsulfoniopropiante (DMSP for short) in their cells. The precise role of this compound still isn’t exactly known, but amongst other things, it’s thought to regulate the volume of the cells, and the fluid levels. This compound can be broken down, both by enzymes in the algae, and by bacteria. When this occurs, dimethylsulfide (DMS) is one of the compounds that can be produced.
DMS is another compound with a disagreeable odour at high concentrations – often compared to that of cabbage. Birds are actually attracted to the smell, as plankton in the sea also produced the gas, and this can lead them to fish. Huge quantities of DMS are produced in the ocean, with a billion tonnes being a rough estimate. DMS and hydrogen sulfide aren’t the sole contributors to the sea smell though – chemical derivatives of DMS can also have a hand.
After a while, the sulfurous algae emissions escape into the atmosphere, where beachgoers get the benefit of its lovely smell. That slow seep is actually the most abundant source of biological sulfur in the atmosphere—sulfur that helps with cloud formation. Scientists think that it plays a major role in controlling the planet’s temperature. “If these reactions didn’t exist, we would have a much different planet, and it wouldn’t be habitable," says Zeljko Serdar. "We rely on these microorganisms catalyzing these particular reactions as part of their metabolism for us to be able to live."
So that characteristic smell of the sea breeze? It’s how the creatures of the ocean, from the tiny plankton to the seabirds, converse with each other, ultimately making your beach vacation possible.
Finally, is sea air good for you? On that question, the jury seems to be out. Most of the studies that conclude that it is seem to rely on self-evaluations of the health of people living near the sea compared to those living further from it, with actual proven health benefits seeming thin on the ground. That said, as you lay back and savour the scent of the decay products of algae and seaweed, you can see why some people might find the idea that it’s good for them an encouraging thought! 

CROATIAN CENTER OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

(CCRES)

četvrtak, 22. lipnja 2017.

Chemtrails





Asking a question that assumes a particular answer is easy to do when you already think you're right and just want people to say you're right. The chemtrail conspiracy theory is the claim that long-lasting trails, so-called "chemtrails", are left in the sky by high-flying aircraft and that they consist of chemical or biological agents deliberately sprayed for unknown purposes undisclosed to the general public Believers (like me, myself & I) in the theory argue that normal contrails dissipate relatively quickly and that contrails that do not dissipate must contain additional substances.

We ask some question? #Chemtrail! Here are some answers from Weather Modification Inc. 3802 20th St. N Fargo, ND 58102 USA

Zeljko Serdar, CCRES
Q.
Who are you?
A.
Weather Modification, Inc., is a global atmospheric sciences company committed to continued advances in the field of weather modification.
Weather Modification, Inc., has a wide range of services to provide knowledge, data, equipment and capability at any phase in your project. We can also tailor a program to meet your specific objectives and manage it from beginning to end.
Our talented scientists, researchers, project managers, technicians, and pilots have the expertise you need to carry out an efficient, effective weather program.

Q.
Cloud seeding?
A.
Aerial cloud seeding is the process of delivering a seeding agent by aircraft - either at the cloud base or cloud top. Top seeding allows for direct injection of the seeding agent into the supercooled cloud top. Base seeding is the release of the seeding agent in the updraft of a cloud base.
Water resources are increasingly taxed by exploding demand and continued population growth. The world's population is projected to grow over 40% in the next 45 years.
Weather modification, commonly known as cloud seeding, is the application of scientific technology that can enhance a cloud's ability to produce precipitation. Weather Modification, Inc., is on the forefront of scientific technology to maximize water availability worldwide. Application of scientific concepts and extensive scientific experimentation has proven that cloud seeding increases the amount of precipitation.

Q.
What are the common applications of cloud seeding?
A.
Cloud seeding is most commonly used to increase precipitation, both in warm and cold seasons (summer and winter). Spring and summer operations are usually conducted from aircraft, as the clouds of interest are convective (cumuliform). Winter storms are most often seeded to increase the snowfall over mountainous terrain. In these cold-season programs, seeding can be done either from aircraft or from ground-based facilities.
Warm season cloud seeding is also used to mitigate hail damage to homes, automobiles, property and crops. Hail damage mitigation efforts utilize airborne delivery of the seeding material.
In addition, cold fogs, those made of cloud droplets but existing at cold temperatures (less than 0°C); can often be dissipated by seeding with ice-forming agents.

Q.
How can the effectiveness of cloud seeding operations be determined?
A.
The success of cloud seeding programs for increased participation can be measured using precipitation gauge data to compare rainfall or snowfall during comparable seeded and non-seeded periods. Another evaluation technique relies on the comparison of seeded seasons with other non-seeded seasons in the same location. For warm season seeding projects, weather radar is sometimes used for evaluations, because all the clouds within range are measured. Some wintertime projects, designed to increase snowfall and subsequent runoff, measure changes in stream flows to assess the impact of seeding efforts.

Q.
What are the environmental consequences of weather modification?
A.
Environmental impact from cloud seeding operations can be broken into two categories:
The effects of the chemical seeding agents used for the programs
The impacts of precipitation changes

Environmental Impact from Cloud Seeding Agents
The active ingredient in cold cloud seeding agents is silver iodide, or AgI. Unlike ionic silver, the silver iodide compound is very stable, essentially inert. Numerous studies have been conducted that clearly demonstrate its safety. Even projects operated for decades have experienced no adverse environmental impacts because of silver iodide. Additional information about the safety of silver iodide, is found in many studies and reports. The active ingredient in warm cloud seeding is simple salt, either sodium chloride (NaCl, table salt), or calcium chloride (CaCl). Both are found abundantly in the environment; sea spray releases millions of tons of NaCl into the atmosphere annually.
Environmental Impact of Precipitation Changes
The effects of cloud seeding on precipitation are typically on the order of 10%, while seasonal natural variability may be as much as a factor of two. When viewed in this context, the seasonal effects resulting from increased precipitation are negligible.

Q.
Are cloud seeding activities subject to regulation or control?
A.
In the United States, most states have laws in place that require permits for all cloud seeding activities, and that those persons conducting the projects be qualified to do so. In addition, site-specific permits and/or environmental evaluations may sometimes be required. U.S. Federal law requires that all cloud seeding operations be reported annually to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Q.
How quickly can Weather Modification, Inc. , launch a project?
A.
Depending upon the location and nature of the program, we may be able to mobilize an effective program within a few weeks of a signed contract. The fastest response generally includes the use of facilities owned by Weather Modification, Inc., including aircraft, radars and ground-based seeding equipment. If a client wants to use aircraft they already own, additional time is required to make required aircraft modifications and obtain needed certifications. Because of our extensive experience and resources, Weather Modification, Inc., does this faster than anyone.

Q.
Do I need to have my own aircraft, or does Weather Modification, Inc. , supply them?
A.
We operate a fleet of reliable twin-engine aircraft suitable for virtually every project, from warm season cloud base seeding operations, to wintertime operations in known icing conditions, to on-top convective storm treatment and/or atmospheric assessment and evaluation. We can even handle your high-altitude (up to 43,000 ft) research needs.
If you wish to use your own aircraft, we can quickly install all requisite seeding equipment and instrumentation for you.
Either way, your program can be up and running quickly and safely.

Q.
What does a cloud seeding project cost?
A.
The cost of a project depends upon the target area size, season and topography, types of seeding to be conducted, needed equipment and personnel, and the length of the desired project period. It is usually better to consider benefit-to-cost ratios. If you think you might be interested, contact us and we’ll be happy to assess your needs and offer an estimate.

Q.
If I am interested in starting a weather modification project, where do I begin?
A.
You can contact us by telephone, mail, fax – or via our simple online form. Or if you prefer, e-mail us at info@weathermodification.com. Tell us where and when you need your project, what you hope to accomplish, and we’ll help you get started.

Q.
Some for the end?
A.
Let us help you better manage your atmospheric and water resources.
When most people look up they see clouds.
WE SEE POTENTIAL.

ponedjeljak, 15. svibnja 2017.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine In Alzheimer's Disease Patients



Acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) is a modified form of carnitine, an amino acid derivative found in red meat, which is readily absorbed throughout the body, including the brain. It is involved in fatty acid metabolism and may improve several aspects of brain health, including mitochondrial function, activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and possibly cognition. However the data suggests that it does not provide a substantial cognitive benefit to patients with dementia.

L carnitine is a naturally occurring substance (amino acid) that is involved in the metabolism of fatty acids to produce energy. It is also known for its antioxidant properties.
L carnitine is produced in the liver and the kidneys. This biologically active amino acid helps burn fatty acids into fuel for energy. It can also be found in foods and diet or health supplements which are often promoted as l carnitine weight loss because of its ability to boost energy and improve strength and stamina. Foods that contain l carnitine include red meat like beef and pork, nuts, legumes, fruits such as apricot and banana, and cereals.
Acetyl-L-carnitine appears to be effective in mild cognitive impairment. This may be an early signal of Alzheimer’s.
Reason: Acetyl-L-carnitine can protect the brain from neurotoxicity. It can also ward off oxygen deprivation. Acetyl-L-carnitine can even preserve cells energy-producing mitochondria. Plus, it can rejuvenate mental and physical function. Dosages for studies have been in the 1,500 – 4,000 mg range. These are divided into two or three doses. However, we recommend no more than 1,000 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine a day without medical supervision.



1,200mg daily can alleviate the decline in cognition associated with Alzheimer’s disease over 6 months and a year.  General cognitive decline (not Alzheimer’s) shows similar benefit in aged individuals at 1-2g daily. The benefits seen in these human interventions are not overly potent in any one regard, and fairly spread out across measured parameters of cognition. This suggests the mechanism(s) of action to credit are more general than specific in the brain. In regards to human studies on Alzheimer’s disease, 1200 mg of Acetyl-L-Carnitine daily can alleviate the decline in cognition associated with Alzheimer’s disease over 6 months and a year.  The benefits seen in these human interventions are not overly potent in any one regard, and fairly spread out across measured parameters of cognition. This suggests the mechanism(s) of action to credit are more general than specific in the brain A meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies suggests that supplements of acetyl-L-carnitine may improve mental function and reduce deterioration in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease . In these studies, subjects took acetyl-L-carnitine for 3–12 months.

L-karnitin je derivat esencijalnih aminokiselina lizina i metionina. Zadužen je za transport dugih lanaca masnih kiselina do mitohondrija, i to u stanicama za proces beta-oksidacije, tj. iskorištavanja dugolančanih masnih kiselina kao izvora energije.
Dva su oblika karnitina: L-karnitin - aktivni oblik i D-karnitin - slabo aktivan i toksičan, sprječava sintezu L-karnitina. Ta  "desno" orijentirana molekula nije normalno prisutna u namirnicama i u organizmu, a tijelo ju ne može iskoristiti.
L-karnitin se u organizmu sintetizira u jetri (90%) i bubrezima, odakle se transportira u druga tkiva. Najveće koncentracije nalaze se u tkivu koje konvertira masne kiseline u energiju, poput mišića skeleta i srčanog mišića. Tijelo odraslog čovjeka (oko 75 kg) sadrži oko 19 grama L-karnitina, prvenstveno u mišićima (puno manje u jetri). Majčino mlijeko sadrži oko 11 mg/l, pa se zato dodaje i u hranu za dojenčad i malu djecu.
Većina ljudi svakodnevnom prehranom unosi 50-200 mg L-karnitina. Katalizatori i uvjet za njegovu tvorbu su prisustvo željeza te vitamina C, B6 i niacina.
L-karnitin pomaže da masne stanice iz okoline pređu u mitohondrije, gdje se iskorištavaju kao energija. Naime, on služi kao nosač za transport masnih kiselina preko membrane u unutrašnjost mitohondrija gdje se odvija izgaranje masnih kiselina koje potom služe kao izvor energije. Na taj način L-karnitin može pridonijeti procesu mršavljenja gubitkom masti, ali ne potiče pojačano trošenje masnog tkiva. Ako nema dovoljno karnitina, masti se ne iskorištavaju za stvaranje energije nego se pojačano talože u mišićima i masnom tkivu. Posljedica su slabost mišića i osjećaj opće slabosti.

Beta-oksidacija

Prvi korak u iskorištavanju triglicerida kao izvora energije je njihova hidroliza na masne kiseline i glicerol koji se zatim prenose do aktivnih tkiva gdje se oksidiraju da bi dali energiju. Kada glicerol uđe u aktivno tkivo, on se djelovanjem staničnih enzima pretvara u glicerol-3-fosfat, spoj koji ulazi u glikolitički put razgradnje glukoze i tako daje energiju. Masne kiseline se prvo moraju razgraditi, a zatim oksidirati. Taj proces odvija se samo u mitohondrijima. Masne se kiseline u mitohondrij prenose pomoću prijenosnika - karnitina. Kada uđu u mitohondrij one se odvajaju od njega i zatim razgrađuju postupnim oslobađanjem odsječaka od dva ugljikova atoma u obliku acetil-koenzima A (acetil-CoA). Taj proces razgradnje masnih kiselina zove se beta-oksidacija. Proces se ponavlja dok se cijeli lanac masne kiseline ne razgradi u niz molekula acetil-koenzima A. Za svaku molekulu acetil-koenzima A koja se odvoji od masne kiseline oslobode se ukupno 4 atoma vodika koji se oksidiraju u mitohondrijima i pritom nastaju velike količine energije.
Acetil-L-karnitin je derivat L-karnitina koji se s pomoću enzima acetil-L-karnitin-transferaze sintetizira u mozgu i jetri. U procesu oksidacije masnih kiselina sudjeluje u transportu koenzima u mitohondrije. Njegova je funkcija proizvodnja acetil-kolina (prijenos signala kroz živčane stanice) te smanjuje količinu kortizola u krvi čime sprječava propadanje tkiva. Također, preko nekih međumehanizama utječe na povišenje razine testosterona, a prema nekim istraživanjima i na povišenje razine hormona rasta. Pridonosi i boljem raspoloženju i koncentraciji.

Slika 2. - Acetil-L-karnitin
Hrana biljnog podrijetla oskudan je izvor L-karnitina. Bogati izvori su meso i mliječni proizvodi. Npr. mrkva ima oko 0,5 mg/100 g L-karnitina, a crveno meso oko 145 mg/100 g.  Iako je glavni izvor L-karnitina u prehrani crveno meso (naročito govedina i janjetina) čak i vegetarijanci mogu sintetizirati količine dovoljne da uz dostatnuu količinu aminokiselina lizina i metionina, te željeza, vitamina C, B6 i niacina sprječe insuficijenciju s težim posljedicama. 
Slika 3. - Crveno meso

Nedostaci L-karnitina

Nedostatak L-karnitina koji bi se mogao prepoznati nekim općim simptomima rijetka je pojava. Najteži oblik - sistematski nedostatak često je genetske prirode i može se utvrditi prema niskoj razini u serumu. Povećan gubitak L-karnitina moguć je kod bolesnika na hemodijalizi, a čest nedostatak uočen je kod prerano rođene djece hranjene mlijekom na  bazi soje, bez dodatka L-karnitina.
Prvi znaci nedostatka L-karnitina često su mišićna slabost i hipoglikemija.
Simptomi deficita su:
  •  slabi mišićni tonus i koordinacija
  •  kronično povišena tjelesna temperatura
  •  poteškoće u hranjenju
  •  gubitak na težini i/ili slabo napredovanje
  •  letargija i neobična slabost
  •  tvrdokorne i učestale infekcije
  •  simptomi nalik gripi
 Funkcije L-karnitina:
  •  usporava proces starenja tako što dovodi odgovarajuće količine energije u stanicu. Svaka stanica u tijelu će biti zdravija, ako joj je dostupna optimalna količina energije;
  •  smanjuje količinu triglicerida i povećava količinu visokozasićenog kolesterola, što prevenira srčane bolesti;
  •  može pomoći pri gubitku tjelesne težine, posebno u kombinaciji s redukcijskom dijetom s nižim udjelom kalorija iz ugljikohidrata, što bi trebalo dodatno potkrijepiti istraživanjima;
  •  neradikalno prilagođava razinu energije u tijelu, bez posljedica koje nastaju korištenjem nekih drugih visoko koncentriranih suplemenata. Štiti tkiva od oštećenja u slučaju pomanjkanja kisika;
  •  kao transporter energije u stanice pomaže njihovoj brzoj obnovi u slučaju bolesti ili oštećenja uzrokovanih intenzivnim treningom, te jača opći imunitet tijela;
  •  posebno je dobar za srce, jer pomaže u sprječavanju srčane aritmije, a acetil-L-karnitin je posebno koristan za živčani sustav i mozak, pa pomaže i u prevenciji Alzheimerove bolesti;
  •  pridonosi boljem raspoloženju i koncentraciji;
  •  dokazano pomaže održanju razine imunoloških stanica CD4 (leukocita) kod oboljelih od virusa.
Najveći broj pojedinačnih znanstvenih radova odnosi se na korištenje L- karnitina kod vrlo aktivnih sportaša – natjecatelja. Ne bez razloga. Premda se L- karnitin u jetri sintetizira iz aminokiselina lizina i metionina, događa se da taj proces pretvaranja zakaže, osobito kad se njegova potrošnja poveća forsiranim treningom. U izgradnji L-karnitina (beta-hidroksi-gama-trimetilamonij butirata) pored navedenih aminokiselina, sudjeluju i C vitamin, nikotinamid, željezo te vitamin B6.
Modificirani oblik L-karnitina (propionil-L karnitin) postao je 'zanimljiv' kada je dvostruko slijepim istraživanjem potvrđeno da 500 mg/dan, poslije 6 mjeseci, može za 26% povećati kapacitet treninga. Ti rezultati nisu potvrđeni kasnijim istraživanjima. Međutim, utvrđeno je da korištenje L-karnitina smanjuje bolnost mišića. Mišljenje da će zbog utjecaja na energiju L-karnitin pomoći i u izgradnji mišićne mase, ili pak popraviti izdržljivost kod vježbanja, nije znanstveno potvrđeno.
Svi istraživači utjecaja L-karnitina slažu se u ocjeni da on vrlo pozitivno djeluje na rad srca što je indirektno ergogeno djelovanje - bolja mišićna kontrakcija zbog bolje opskrbe masnim kiselinama i veći volumen djelovanja. Također je poboljšana i oksigenacija tkiva i organa.
Ako se pak uvažava iskustvo aktivnih športaša, osobito body buildera i dizača utega, ono pokazuje da je L-karnitin jedno od najboljih sredstava za prevenciju njihovog najvećeg neprijatelja - kroničnog umora. Naime, L-karnitin usporava stvaranje mliječne kiseline u mišićima.
U jednom su pokusu praćeni parametri nastanka umora pri opterećenju srednjeg intenziteta kod pacijenta s anginom pektoris koji je dobivao L-karnitin. Primijećeni su poboljšanje i odgoda umora za čak 50%. Neki su pokusima znatno uzdrmali tezu o uštedi glikogena pod utjecajem suplementiranja L-karnitinom. L-karnitin ima jednu manu - sporo se apsorbira, pa je potrebno višekratno uzimanje. Prije nego bi se mogli uočiti bilo kakvi učinci, L-karnitin treba uzimati najmanje 4 tjedna. 
Slika 1. - Autor, Zeljko Serdar, HCOIE

Još neka istraživanja

Novija istraživanja vezana uz starenje pokazala su spektakularne rezultate na laboratorijskim životinjama. Kombinacija acetil-L-karnitina (esterificirani L-karnitin s dodatkom acetilne grupe, koji efikasnije djeluje u mozgu) i alfa lipoične kiseline (Alpha Lipoic Acid-ALA, univerzalni antioksidans i mitohondrijalni kofaktor) povećala je mitohondrijalnu energiju i snažno je djelovala na poboljšanje memorije. Bez obzira na uzbuđenje vezano uz ta otkrića, klinička istraživanja na ljudima, iako u pripremi, još nisu obavljena, barem ne u relevantnoj mjeri.
Neke preliminarne studije na bolesnicima s Alzheimerovom bolesti pokazuju da pacijenti stari do 65 godina pokazuju određeno usporenje napredovanja bolesti (suplementacija po 3 g/dan tijekom 12 mjeseci).
Kliničke studije provedene na pacijentima koji su doživjeli srčani udar i odmah potom, uz primjenu odgovarajućih lijekova dobivali su 4 g L-karnitina, pokazale su povoljne rezultate. U maloj studiji na 160 pacijenata, nakon tretmana od godine dana smrtnost je bila 1,2% u odnosu na 12.5% u placebo skupini. U drugoj skupini od 472 pacijenta, razlika fatalnih ishoda bila je bitno manja, no stanje srčane klijetke bilo je mnogo bolje u skupini koja je dobivala L-karnitin. Temeljem tih rezultata upravo je u tijeku velika studija na 4000 pacijenata.
L-karnitin dodan standardnoj kliničkoj terapiji za bolesti srca dao je dobre rezultate. Pacijenti koji su dobivali 1,5 g propionil-L-karnitina u periodu tijekom mjesec dana, pokazali su znatno bolju toleranciju na fizičke aktivnosti. Isto je pokazala i studija na 266 pacijenata tijekom 6 mjeseci. 2 g L-karnitina dobivali su bolesnici s anginom pektoris, što im je značajno produžilo vrijeme normalne fizičke aktivnosti.

Upotreba i doziranje

Za ljude s normalnim potrebama dovoljan je 1 g/dan. Preporučuje se uz doručak uzeti 500 mg, a ako se osoba bavi nekom fizičkom aktivnošću,  aerobnom ili anaerobnom, onda bi trebalo pola sata prije aktivnosti uzeti još 500 mg.
Potrebu za većim količinama imaju sportaši te jetreni i bubrežni bolesnici čiji organizam ne može proizvesti dovoljnu količinu.
Dnevna doza ne bi trebala prijeći 4 g, jer tada koža može poprimiti neugodan "riblji" miris. Intravenozno se L-karnitin daje samo u slučajevima utvrđenih genetskih nedostataka.
Treba voditi računa i o obliku u kojemu se L-karnitin uzima. Naime, količina od npr. 1g ne može se staviti u dovoljnu malu tabletu, jer L-karnitin treba i veću količinu tvari - nosača u tableti, što može dosta poskupiti proizvod. Zato se preporučuju i tekući pripravci s L-karnitinom.

Zaključak

L-karnitin nije čudotvorno sredstvo koje topi masti same za sebe, ali će osobama koje su odlučile uz proces redukcije tjelesne težine uložiti i nešto energije, pomoći da brže dođu do rezultata. Uzimanje L-karnitina  bez aerobne tjelesne aktivnosti ne daje velike rezultate, pa je njegovo samostalno uzimanje, bez kvalitetnog programa vježbanja, manje djelotvorno. 
Acetyl L-Carnitine može pomoći kod Alzheimera (odgađa progresiju i poboljšava stanje), depresije, mišićne distrofije, dijabetesa, oboljenja jetre. Koristan je i kod angine pektoris jer poboljšava iskorištavanje kisika i stvaranja energije u mitohondrijima.

Literatura:

  1.  Mueller DM, Seim H, Kiess W, Loster H, Richter T. Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on in vivo long-chain fatty acid oxidation in healthy adults. Metabolism 2002; 51(11): 1389-91.
  2.  Sirtori CR, Calabresi L, Ferrara S, Pazzucconi F, Bondioli A, Baldassarre D, Birreci A, Koverech A. L-carnitine reduces plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in patients with hyper Lp(a). Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2000 Oct;10(5):247-51.
  3.  Vescovo G, Ravara B, Gobbo V, Sandri M, Angelini A, Della Barbera M, Dona M, Peluso G, Calvani M, Mosconi L, Dalla Libera L. L-Carnitine: a potential treatment for blocking apoptosis and preventing skeletal muscle myopathy in heart failure. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2002 Sep;283(3):C802-10.
  4.  Singh RB, Niaz MA, Agarwal P, Beegum R, Rastogi SS, Sachan DS. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnitine in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Postgrad Med J 1996 Jan;72(843):45-50.
  5.  Gurlek A et al. The effects of L-carnitine treatment on left ventricular function and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail 2000 Jun;2(2):189-93.
  6.  Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Rubin MR, Gomez AL, Ratamess NA, Gaynor P. L-Carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002 Feb;282(2):E474-82.
  7.  Laplante A, Vincent G, Poirier M, Des Rosiers C. Effects and metabolism of fumarate in the perfused rat heart; A 13C mass isotopomer study. Am J Physiol 1997 Jan;272(1 Pt 1):E74-82.
  8.  PDR® for Nutritional Supplements™. Hendler and Rorvik. Medical Economics Company, Inc. Montrale, NJ 2001.
  9.  Salvioli G, Neri M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1994;20(4):169-76.

ponedjeljak, 1. svibnja 2017.

Alternative treatments to delay or prevent Alzheimer’s disease


There are two different methods that can be used for the production of coenzyme Q10, one method employs a ‘natural’ process and the other uses chemical synthesis – a synthetic process. The natural process utilizes living organisms and is referred to as a biological fermentation/extraction process. CoenzymeQ10 can also be synthesized by a chemical process, which produces a similar, but distinctly different product that contains chemical compounds not found in the natural form. 

CCRES ALGAE AND CoQ10

Parkinson’s disease is a common aging-related disorder that impacts the lives of many around the world. Parkinson’s disease occurs when the brain is no longer able to produce certain protein’s the control motor functions, and eventually, cognitive functions.
When a person suffers from Parkinson’s disease, they may experience weakness, slowed movement, and cognitive impairment. Although there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, there are measures you can take to help control the symptoms.
Taking a CoQ10 supplement may slow the progression of the disease. Animal studies have found that CoQ10 decreases the damage done to the neurons in the brain affected by Parkinson’s disease.
Alzheimer’s disease impacts the lives of millions of people every year and is the sixth leading cause of death. Alzheimer’s disease may develop for several reasons: aging, genetics, oxidative stress on the brain, just to name a few.
Animal studies have found that taking a CoQ10 supplement helps relieve the oxidative stress on a brain related to Alzheimer’s disease. When a brain is overwhelmed by oxidative stress, it suffers from inflammation and results in the loss of cognition, memory, and the loss of physical function.
Although so far these finding have been found in animal studies, they may indicate what the results will look like in humans. In fact, humans suffering from a CoQ10 deficiency show lover levels of CoQ10 in their spinal fluid, which may be indicative of significant oxidative stress effecting their brains.
Taking a CoQ10 supplement may help prevent and treat the symptoms of such mental disorders as bipolar disorder, major depression, and schizophrenia. These specific mental disorders are associated with increased levels of brain oxidative stress levels and mitochondrial dysfunction, lowering the levels of naturally occurring CoQ10.
Therefore, people suffering from a CoQ10 deficiency don’t respond as well to prescribed antidepressant medication. By taking a CoQ10 supplement, these medications may be more effective and help reverse the symptoms of these often debilitating mental disorders.
One study found that people suffering from bipolar disorder experienced a significant reduction in symptoms once they started taking 1200 mgs of CoQ10 a day. Some antidepressants actually decrease the levels of CoQ10, so people taking these medications may especially benefit from taking a CoQ10 supplement.
Migraines are quite common, affecting over 10 million people in the United States every year. Over three million people suffer from more than one migraine headache a month, which can affect the quality of their lives and even their jobs.
Although the chain of events leading to a migraine headache are fuzzy, it is believed that low CoQ10 levels may share some responsibility in creating this debilitating condition. Many people have found that taking a CoQ10 supplement helps maintain their migraine headaches, decreasing the frequency of them. CoQ10 supplements also help maintain the symptoms associated with migraines such as nausea.
CoQ10 supplements are a major component in maintain the health of your heart. People with a family history of heart disease and high blood pressure may especially benefit from taking a CoQ10 supplement. Maintaining healthy levels of CoQ10 keep your heart running like a well-oiled machine—improving the overall health of your cardiovascular system.
Taking a CoQ10 supplement will help regulate your blood pressure, improve the functioning diastolic function of your heart, and reduces the likelihood of developing heart disease. Taking a CoQ10 supplement not only helps those already suffering from cardiovascular problems, but works as a great preventative measure.
Zeljko Serdar, CCRES

srijeda, 19. travnja 2017.

PROJECT: INSULATE AND AIR SEAL FLOORS OVER UNCONDITIONED GARAGES







‘A typical family spends nearly $2,000 per year on their home energy bills. Much of that money, however, is wasted through leaky windows or ducts, old appliances, or inefficient heating and cooling systems. The CCRES Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Savings Projects offer easy, step-by-step instructions to home energy efficiency improvements that will save you energy and money’. – Zeljko Serdar

Installing continuous air and thermal barriers between an unconditioned garage and the conditioned spaces above can save energy and money, improve comfort, and safeguard indoor air quality. Your garage may be a source of multiple pollutants, including dangerous carbon monoxide from car exhaust. In addition to careful air sealing and insulating, never leave your car engine running with the garage door closed and store paints, solvents, and other chemicals in tightly sealed containers.

BEFORE YOU START
Before insulating the floor between an unconditioned garage and the conditioned space above, take the time to:
  • Carefully air seal all gaps between the garage and the conditioned space above and the garage and the outdoors (the rim/band joist, for example)
  • Calculate the amount and determine the R-value of the insulation you will need
  • Gather all required tools and materials.
SHOPPING LIST
Choose materials that don’t require specialized equipment or tools to install.
  • Blanket insulation
  • Wire fasteners
  • Tape measure
  • Sharp utility knife
  • Caulk and foam sealant
  • Caulk gun
  • Stepladder
  • Straightedge
  • Respirator or dust mask
  • Eye protection
  • Protective clothing, including long-sleeved shirt, long pants, closed shoes, and gloves.

STEP-BY-STEP INSTRUCTIONS

  • Double-check your insulation
    1.) Double-check your insulation
    Before opening the packages, verify that the insulation material is the correct width and R-value.
  • Seal air gaps
    2.) Seal air gaps
    Before insulating, carefully air seal gaps in the floor between the garage and the conditioned space as well as the garage and the outdoors (rim/band joists, for example). Use caulk for gaps smaller then ¼ inch and foam for gaps ¼ inch to 3 inches. In addition to improving energy efficiency, air sealing also helps keep exhaust fumes and other pollutants out of the conditioned space.
  • Fit insulation between joists
    3.) Fit insulation between joists
    Ensure insulation extends to the outside edge of each joist bay and is in contact with blocking or rim/band joist and the subfloor above. When using kraft-faced batts, install kraft facing against the conditioned side of the cavity. The kraft facing creates a vapor retarder that prevents trapped moisture from reducing the insulation’s effectiveness.
  • Adjust insulation for a snug fit
    4.) Adjust insulation for a snug fit
    Ensure ends of insulation are butted snugly together and in full contact with the subfloor of the conditioned space above.
  • Fasten the insulation in place
    5.) Fasten the insulation in place
    Use wire fasteners to support the insulation so that it is in full contact with the subfloor but not compressed.
    CCRES DIY TEAM part of Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources ( CCRES )



Renewable Energy Croatia 2012